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2018-07-04 03:27 Դ ҵ α༭

٤ʱѧǾһֱڳھˮʼûջͨNilssonͬµĹǿܽӽΪʲôˮЩΪǵĽ;ˮһأˮһҺ

Stanley˵˵ˮǵĴڶʮҪڶٽ㴦ܶȵľ޴ֵԭ֮һDebenedettiڼ֤һüģǵڲͬѹǵڶٽ㸽ΪDebenedetti˵ڼµκܶȲͬҺ̬ˮ໥üΪȤ

ʵλɽʡൺнءʾμij̶

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һλݴѧУRich Saykally˵Ҫ֤ݶЩƯ½˵ڶר PooleStanleySaykallyΪֻˮڵʱ

https//www.newscientist.com/article/mg23831800-100-h2oh-water-is-actually-two-liquids-disguised-as-one/

Ϊ̽ʲôPooleStanleyǵĺģˮĹСĵؽˮʹ̵ȻҺ̬ǵļģ֤ʵˮڹ̬ܶΪ¶ȽȷʵһЩȤĻһ

ijЩˮжֲͬʽⲢȡ۲ѹǿ¶ˮǹ̬Һ̬̬ںƽˮ100CʱתΪѹϵ͵ĸߺεˮڸ͵¶·ʱʡIJҲٵ

жɳĮ

ҲҺµĿȺѹǿڸ¶һҺཻٽڵ»һصڶٽʵȴҺ̬ǿתֲͬܶȵҺ壺ԭͬDzͬĽṹDzͬ

غ̲ͿҲҪʪ̬ϵͳֲˮǷӰ컷

ൺҵ˾ĸƷһؿൺҵ˾ǨǰԭַڸԼ60ǵĸƷҪɷ̼ЩྭŷźͶѻγɵ̲ͿμԶԶȥããݲΪء

20168Ԭ¡ƽŶʽפൺԺʿȥڰʵؽμˮɸѡ300μˮζȴǧ֮ǧ֮ݶɸɸѡĸƷֽвȥ9һƷС߲ÿĶ620.95Ϲкˮϲֺ߳ˮҹμϽдΧ˳ĻԤͻᵮμˮƷܴΧֲŹ˵

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ˮĵڶٽ

ְ˹¸ĦѧNilssonһսŶһֱˮΪPooleStanleyҺͳNilssonºʹѹ¹ˮӿֽṹڣܶѻԼܶȽϵ͵ľṹЩ绷ܶȵḡڻҵ֮Ҳʾͬвͬһ۵

֤ˮҲеڶٽʱNilssonعעPooleStanleyеĹؼԤԣˮܶڵ»ܼ򵥣ܶȻıʹ·ߣStanleyѧBenjamin WidomWidomߣջᵽٽWidomѧѧPaola Gallo˵һٽ

ൺˮзĸŹ˳ĻԤƵ2019йͻᵮһμˮƷ2020ܴΧֲ

ϰɳĮҹ²30϶ʪ20%ɳĮлʺ7.5״Ǻˮˮзͨάֲи5ˮѽӡȡȹרҽвһˮĶ500ˮĶ400

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Ź˵̲ͿΪֲͬԭDZDzDZΪصЩطֲˮƻΧĵط̬ƻֱҲһƻֲˮֵ̽·

ʲôˮμ˴ˮ֮ԽΪμμˮ

ھҺ̬̬ǷֿȻ¶Ⱥѹǿʼı屻ѹһ̶ʱΪʼҺ壻Һ屻ҲΪѹǿ¶㹻ᵽһΪٽ㡱΢ƽһ޷㿴ĵһ̬΢ѹǿ¶ˮͻصҺ̬̬

С˵оҾҪŹзļƻ8¿רŵйʳζƷоԺĿǰѡַذձĵ׿ζרҲоҲὫоɹƶʺй˿ζĵ׿ζ׼

6ѮൺˮзĽԵϰݵˮٴβݲˮѡȡˮͨзʺϵ򻷾ӽˮƷ°100ʵũڸΧڶɱ๤ȶԽ֤γɳĮˮƹ㼼׼

612ˮоչİʵԱŽƤѥ鿴ѷֱĺˮͨˮʲôӽˮ֮Ԭ¡ƽ˵Щˮܡ̲ͿΪôݲμصƮ㡱

ʵһҲˮɱ΢СΧѸγɱNilssonҪȽúȽ豸2017NilssonŶӻ˼ˮСȴ-45CˮNilssonѹǿı仯Ӷܶ

ֻܹΧֲг֪΢IDbqzhengzhijuĵĻһ⺣ˮóǧ֮ζԼڳʣ̶ζȻˮζ

ԭ⣺ˮһҺڵĹؼ

ˮٽļ˵һЩŹNilsson˵κйˮ鶼оΪˮʿøΪͳķʽһֽڼ͵¶̬ˮתΪһĹǾṹıһֽΪǵڶٽֻˮһص̷ʽ

ԭӣ

ȥйտʼоӽʱΪĿǵһλŹһ˵ͬͿڸͬҪóԡҲҪΪѡ׼ΪóԾȥũȻҲԸֲóԵƷǾͲὫѡ

1992ʿٴѧPeter Poole Gene Stanley쵼ŶӸıһDZһˮܶڵ´ˮ¶ԽܶԽеԤԶһ¶ԽܶԽС

ڽ3µ֤ٴγķ˹صѧSander WoutersenŶӲȫͬ˼·dzһʹˮʱֹͣķõķźˮƵķӽṹܹܽⲢΧҺオʱܶȳͻȻ仯ΪҺʹˮĽṹdzΪˮȷʵеڶٽ˹ٴѧPablo DebenedettiҲΪ֧ˮɵĹ۵ǷΪսԳֱ

26ڼ֮ʵŶΪPooleStanleyԤṩ˼ʵѧȤ Stanley˵

ԸμиõһൺˮоչĶġάŹάҪϵͳڼֲؼĴҪϵͳ϶ɵļڼɸμֲлˮǿһһɻҪϵͳ˵¹ŵĽɫһڵ°ֲغˮԴԵι෽ʽ׼䵽ˮһڵ1.8֪μˮμˮܵͻῪռμȡֹѭֻҪһμؿڱ

Ŷ֪ǹڵڶٽʶȷ֤ͨ伬ٽ¶ֻ-45Cʹǹ̬ˮҲԷɱٵսǽˮȴ Stanley˵оҪdz

ӦáάĻеϰ1ൺˮзܵϰ˽Ͷʰ칫ίѡȡʮӽˮڵȴɳĮչˮֲ俹ԡԺͿԵ״в

һȷӰ첻Nilsson WoutersenʵдʽЩ۶Ҳ Nilsson˵DebenedettiҲʾͬ⣺ЩЧӦӰʮԶٽˮΧеԵȷӳʱ

һЩоԱGalloΪNilsson뷨ʮҪȻоԱNilssonŶʹõļȴӢƼʩίԱ¬ɪնʵҵAlan Soperָָٽ֤ݼΪNilssonзֵЧӦ΢ŶֿܵĽ֮һ丽Ӧеڶٽ

ŹݺʱԤ2020ϰݵֲԸ10ƽʾ׼ũũ40ΪɳĮġޡʳԸʳȫƵ̬

ȻҪȷȻһȷʵпܳ׽Nilssonȥҵڶٽȷ֤ܳɹôˮΪˮñ

ԴѧScientificAmerican

ʵһ˹ģʵӽˮӽᆳμѿɸѡʵŹ֪΢IDbqzhengzhiju˵ĿǰҰˮ170ںܵʹˮӵͲת߲ܹƹֲһʵ

Ҳѧϵ;Щڶٽ㲢û̫ע㲻רоҺ̬һܲע

֪ˮ4Cʱܶʲڽʱܶͺӵײʼɱˮеľסߣˮıݲôںܾ֮ǰͻᱻոɣˮڴԽϸĤʱЯֲͶͻӪ

ȥ12 NilssonŶӹˮԷǰ̵һʱDz׽˹ˮ״̬Ƭо߱ʾDz׽WidomߵԺۼ켣ָڶٽ

PooleStanleyŶӲǵڶٽˮֳܶȲͬҺÿһֶԼУڵڶٽ֮ˮ֮תΪʲͬһתһʱᵼͻȻܶȱ仯һ仯ٽʱΪ

ˮܸƻ

Һ

׶ϰѧMartin Chaplinˮڵ´ֽṹܹܺõؽºʹѹ¿ˮΪ4CҺ̬ˮܶȱȱһʵΪʹˮ½γܶȸĽṹˮĸ߱ΪյʹˮӴһתΪһˮѹµɢУڸѹṹ

ڰʵÿ춼׷ζƮСںŶƷооһŵ緹ͬƷơͬܡͬλʮоС˻Ὣͬĵоҵͬä⡱Ǹֱ۵ˮʵһɫζȽŴ̵еظС˵ΪоȥҲһ׵ˮı緹ҹܵѡʱȶҪԱ

Źʾġά½μغˮֲضͶʹ359ÿѵѾ̻ĴμֲˮҪָɡ±ýϡ

жСһһ·߹رǶǹҵĺҲڿǵŹ˵Խϡӡȡ˹ȹˮμȽǶںˮкܴйˮ硱

ԭ⣺ϰԬ¡ƽоҪɳĮ

ˮ̫˵仰ǽѧĶоˮĻѧAnders Nilsson۵˵ԽϾʲôܱˮѰˮΪ˵Ϥͨ ˮҲǶһ޶Ϊûл

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2008һϵлоˮͬ½ĽNilssonܿ췢ǵ뷨ʼNilsson˵Ͼˮֻһº͹״̬Ųͬ˽ͳһĻ˵Ե֮ǰûⷽо󲿷ֶѧҵĹ

ˮζ

Ĺ۵㡣֡ͼƬݵʵԡʱԡԺ׼ȷԼȨԾκα֤ͳŵߺطкʵ

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